Wednesday, January 23, 2008

 

MMIC dPBL 2 overview of case













Image: http://www.yahoo.com/ > Image> Indonesia

Indonesia [1] , in southeastern Asia, has a strategic location along major sea-lanes that connect the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The majority of the Indonesia’s islands consist of rugged volcanic mountains covered by dense tropical forests; however, some of the islands have swamps and plains. Indonesia is one of the most volcanically active regions on earth, with more than 100 active volcanoes. The region is subject to frequent earthquakes. The climate is tropical with an average daily temperature range of 21.1°C to 32.2° C with 80 to 90 percent humidity in the lowlands. Temperatures and humidity are lower as elevation increases, and temperatures below freezing can occur at elevations over 9,800 feet. Indonesia’s wet season occurs from November to March, and annual rainfall averages 40-78 inches.

Routes of transmission and entry of microorganism into host
Due to the humid and warm climate which is experienced in Indonesia all year round, bacterial, viral, protozoal and fungi infection can occur frequently in military soldiers.
Some pathogens are transmitted into huamns from wild animals and birds in the jungle. In the case of fungi infections, the infectious spores are carried from the soil to humans by air-borne routes. Food-borne diseases due contaminated water and food, un-cook food can also cause infections in these personnel. In addition, respiratory diseases and vector-borne diseases can also cause illness in these soldiers. Dirty living conditions such as not changing soiled clothes, not cleaning and airing of the feet frequently can also lead to microorganism infections. Other possible routes of transmission include aniaml bites (in the case of rabies), animal excretion, contaminated medications or fomites. [2]


References:
1) indonesia/">http://www.wikipedia.com>Indonesia
2) Jensen M. M. and Wright D. N. (1993) Introduction to Micobiology for Health Sciences. Prentices-Hall Inc., new Jersey

Bacteria

Presence of bacteria is extremely high in unhygienic conditions. Individuals infected by bacteria will present symptoms that may be infectious to other uninfected individual thus spreading the infection. [1] The soldiers having their army stint in Indonesia are exposed to numerous bacteria e.g. Shigella species, Salmonella species, E. coli, Campylobacter species as hygiene conditions are often overlooked. In addition, they are exposed to more bacteria during their jungle warfare training as soil, streams, rivers, animal feces, uncooked food which contain abundant amounts of bacteria. [1]

Food borne bacteria
In the jungle, military personnel have to prepare food themselves, thus the chances of consuming un-cook or contaminated food is relatively high. Therefore, they are at risk of be infected with various bacteria that are found on food when not cooked or cleaned properly. [5, 6]

Result from undercooking of food especially meat, organisms that are common include:
Campylobacter jejuni
Salmonella spp
Shigella spp
Listeria monocytogenes
Clostridium perfringens
Clostridium botulinium

Symptoms include:
Nausea
Vomitting
Abdominal cramping
Diarrhea
Fever

Shigella [3]

Transmission: Most individuals are infected with shigellae when they ingest food or water contaminated with human fecal material. Spread is always from a human source.

Causes: Shigellosis

Signs and symptoms: Fever, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, dehydration, tenesmus (straining of stool)

Salmonella species [2]

Transmission: Salmonella is spread from the carcasses to humans when the poultry is eaten undercooked. Other sources of Salmonellae include milk products, food, and water contaminated with animal feces or urine.

Causes: Salmonellosis, enteritis, Typhoid fever, primary septicemia

Signs and symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, weight loss, anemia, anorexia, headache.

Campylobacter [1]

Transmission: Campylobacter is usually acquired from food (especially poultry), milk, or contact with infected animals (e.g. dogs) through the fecal-oral route.

Causes: Acute enteritis

Signs and symptoms: Bloody diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, headache.


Animal vector bacteria [1,3]
As the soldiers are training in the jungle, they will encounter many different forms of wildlife. Bacteria carried by them may be transmitted to the soldiers. Common ones include:

Brucella spp (contact with infected animals e.g. dogs, pigs, cattle, horse)
Francisella sp. (contact with wild animals that carry ticks, mites and lice)
Yersinia spp (contact with rodents that carry fleas that carry the bacteria)
Pasteurella multocida (cat and dog bites)

Soil vector bacteria [2, 3]
In addition to the exposure to various fauna and flora living in the jungle, soldiers may also come in contact with soil. Soil is a place where many bacteria flourished thus they chances of getting an infection casued by a soil organism is also relatively possible


Clostrodium tetani [2]

Transmission: Soils or materials in contact with animal wastes are usually heavily contaminated with C. tetani and offer excellent sources of infections. Soil-contaminated wounds are most frequent source of infection.

Causes: Tetanus

Signs and symptoms: Spasmodic contractions (tetany) in involved muscles that are affected by the toxin and muscle spasms.

Mode of control: Vaccines

References

1. Levinson, W. (2006). Review of Medical Microbiology & Immunology. San Francisco, California: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill publishing company

2. Elliott T., Hasting M. and Desselberger U. (1997). Lecture Notes on Medical Microbiology. Blackwell Science, Oxford

3. Walker, T.S. (1998). Microbiology. Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia: W.B Saunders Company

4. http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ > Search > food poisoning

5. http://www.medicinenet.com/ > Search > food poisoning



Done by: Star team


Comments:
Hello. This post is likeable, and your blog is very interesting, congratulations :-). I will add in my blogroll =). If possible gives a last there on my blog, it is about the Home Broker, I hope you enjoy. The address is http://home-broker-brasil.blogspot.com. A hug.
 
I found this site using [url=http://google.com]google.com[/url] And i want to thank you for your work. You have done really very good site. Great work, great site! Thank you!

Sorry for offtopic
 
Who knows where to download XRumer 5.0 Palladium?
Help, please. All recommend this program to effectively advertise on the Internet, this is the best program!
 
hi, randstarteam.blogspot.com!
[url=http://viagradef.fora.pl/] viagra bestellen [/url] [url=http://viagradee.fora.pl/] viagra ohne rezept[/url] [url=http://cialisdea.fora.pl/] cialis kaufen online[/url] [url=http://cialisdeb.fora.pl/] cialis ohne rezept[/url] [url=http://cialisdec.fora.pl/] cialis kaufen rezeptfrei[/url] [url=http://cialisded.fora.pl/] cialis kaufen [/url]
 
brooding nasaa ngcs activate hebbal assimilate resourced shillings izcu ubos lying
masimundus semikonecolori
 
very useful article. I would love to follow you on twitter. By the way, did you learn that some chinese hacker had hacked twitter yesterday again.
[url=http://amazon.reviewazone.com/]Andrea[/url]
 
You have to express more your opinion to attract more readers, because just a video or plain text without any personal approach is not that valuable. But it is just form my point of view
 
You have really great taste on catch article titles, even when you are not interested in this topic you push to read it
 
Good dispatch and this mail helped me alot in my college assignement. Gratefulness you on your information.
 
This has been on my mind for some time..... and I agree with you to some degree.
frokostordning
 
Hey guys,

Would you like to watch Spy Kids 4: All the Time in the World movie online? It is not released yet but you can watch it already!

Click here to [url=http://watch-spykids4allthetimeintheworld-online.com/watch-spykids4allthetimeintheworld-online-free.php]watch Spy Kids 4: All the Time in the World online[/url]
 
Hey guys,

Do you want to watch Final Destination 5 movie online? It is not released yet but you can watch it already!

Click here to [url=http://watchfinaldestination5-online.com/]watch Final Destination 5[/url]
 
Hello guys,

Do you want to watch Final Destination 5? It is not released yet but you can watch it online already!

Click here to [url=http://watchfinaldestination5-online.com/]watch Final Destination 5 online[/url]
 
I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don't know what to say except that I have enjoyed reading. Nice blog. I will keep visiting this blog very often.


Susan


Hair Loss Cure
 
uggs slippers outlet uggs stores in new jersey ugg boot clogs http://www.bootssecher.co.uk [url=http://www.ukgetboots.co.uk][img]http://www.ukgetboots.co.uk/images/ugg-boots.jpg alt="uk ugg" title="cheap ugg boots"[/img][/url]
[url=http://www.vtallboots.org.uk/#m4v44h10c][b]cheap ugg boots[/b][/url]
[url=http://www.fdidboots.co.uk/#e6l37k87d][b]fdidboots.co.uk[/b][/url]
[url=http://www.bootssecher.co.uk/#m2w01u40g][b]http://www.bootssecher.co.uk[/b][/url]

 
buy fake chanel bags ohzudLlU [URL=http://www.fake-chanel--bags.org/]replica chanel bags[/URL] to get new coupon uvIORKWt [URL=http://www.fake-chanel--bags.org/ ] http://www.fake-chanel--bags.org/ [/URL]

 
Helo ! Forex - Работа на дому на компьютере чашка кофе нравится ситуация стала независимой, пройти регистрацию forex [url=http://foxfox.ifxworld.com/]forex[/url]
 
you definitely love [URL=http://jacket-dresses.net/]moncler cheap[/URL] with low price zVnsNzad [URL=http://jacket-dresses.net/ ] http://jacket-dresses.net/ [/URL]

 
to buy [URL=http://e--store.com/]outlet coach[/URL] at my estore bFqsOZBO [URL=http://e--store.com/ ] http://e--store.com/ [/URL]

 
purchase urVzTnVp [URL=http://www.camera--lenses.com/]canon ef 75-300mm iii lens[/URL] online kPZgPEck [URL=http://www.camera--lenses.com/ ] http://www.camera--lenses.com/ [/URL]

 
And there are more shows after that, too. [url=http://www.mulberryhandbagssale.co.uk]Mulberry Bags[/url] the Fed may identify higher commodity prices as a potential concern, policymakers are not likely to reverse course and tighten policy unless higher commodity prices push through to core inflation. [url=http://www.goosecoatsale.ca]canada goose women parka[/url] Rhurdkkwo
http://www.pandorajewelryvip.co.uk Brrdeagce [url=http://www.officialcanadagooseparkae.com]canada goose chilliwack[/url] lyyeccacq
 
chootmece chootmeceJB
Authentic Peyton Manning Jersey
Von Miller Jersey
Authentic Jason Pierre-Paul Jersey

 
cheap eyNTKvJL [URL=http://www.chanel--online-shop.net/]chanel outlet[/URL] with confident lOqOnRTu [URL=http://www.chanel--online-shop.net/ ] http://www.chanel--online-shop.net/ [/URL]

 
for gbhttJMk [URL=http://www.spyder-jackets2013.com/ - spyder ski jackets[/URL - suprisely ZjBzbzAN [URL=http://www.spyder-jackets2013.com/ - http://www.spyder-jackets2013.com/ [/URL -

 
sell vApcZsIp [URL=http://www.karen-millen-outlet2013.com/]karen millen uk[/URL] , for special offer FMUGtGdI [URL=http://www.karen-millen-outlet2013.com/ ] http://www.karen-millen-outlet2013.com/ [/URL]

 
must look at this CanAlREt [URL=http://www.moncler-outlet2013.org/ - cheap moncler jackets[/URL - online shopping EZmFCyoQ [URL=http://www.moncler-outlet2013.org/ - http://www.moncler-outlet2013.org/ [/URL -

 
игровые автоматы лас вегаса бесплатно играть [url=http://edpengotarmokhaz.narod.ru/casino288.html]казино видео онлайн[/url] азартные игры игровые автоматы играть бесплатно вулкан , [url=http://edpengotarmokhaz.narod.ru/casino600.html]игровые автоматы алькатрас играть бесплатно без регистрации мега джек[/url] онлайн покер холдем менеджер , [url=http://edpengotarmokhaz.narod.ru/casino192.html]игровые автоматы золото партии играть бесплатно в хорошем качестве[/url] игровые автоматы играть бесплатно крышки , [url=http://edpengotarmokhaz.narod.ru/casino180.html]реально заработать в интернет казино[/url] онлайн казино кристалл цена
 
Its such as you read my thoughts! You appear to understand so much about
this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I feel that you just can do with some
p.c. to power the message home a little bit, however other
than that, this is great blog. A great read. I'll certainly be back.

My webpage :: bad credit payday loan
 
Hello. And Bye. Thank you very much.
 
This piece of writing presents clear idea designed for the new viewers of blogging, that in
fact how to do running a blog.

Here is my site ... bmi chart For women
my page :: bmi chart women
 
азартные игры в тысячу онлайн [url=http://civitlorioscomto.narod.ru/infa702.html]интернет покер 888[/url] онлайн покер испания , [url=http://civitlorioscomto.narod.ru/infa78.html]игровые автоматы играть бесплатно новые обезьяны[/url] игровые автоматы маски шоу бесплатно , [url=http://civitlorioscomto.narod.ru/infa416.html]скачать бесплатно азартные игры автоматы[/url] азартные игры для взрослых онлайн , [url=http://civitlorioscomto.narod.ru/infa52.html]интернет казино бесплатно без регистрации[/url] эмулятор игрового автомата резидент , [url=http://civitlorioscomto.narod.ru/infa520.html]база игровых автоматов[/url]
 
онлайн казино кристалл вход [url=http://fiatherastanawva.narod.ru/info390.html]интернет казино титан[/url] эстонское онлайн казино , [url=http://fiatherastanawva.narod.ru/info650.html]казино вулкан что с баллами[/url] казино wmc активация , [url=http://fiatherastanawva.narod.ru/info754.html]онлайн казино вулкан 800 600[/url] интернет казино для мобильного , [url=http://fiatherastanawva.narod.ru/info468.html]казино астория в капчагай[/url] интернет казино winner
 
[url=http://diecremgoldbookcirigh.narod.ru/vip882.html]казино хо минск отзывы[/url] интернет казино гранд казино hd , [url=http://diecremgoldbookcirigh.narod.ru/vip720.html]казино астория клуб казино[/url] действующие казино , [url=http://diecremgoldbookcirigh.narod.ru/vip378.html]бесплатные игры казино без регистрации[/url] казино vegas red , [url=http://diecremgoldbookcirigh.narod.ru/vip198.html]интернет казино остров сокровищ отзывы[/url] адреса казино в россии , [url=http://diecremgoldbookcirigh.narod.ru/vip630.html]играть онлайн казино автоматы[/url] онлайн казино вин 32
 
BggFisWnzPjp [url=http://adidas51.webnode.jp/]ナイキ air[/url]SxcCutNogVhq [url=http://nikeonline.blog.fc2blog.net/]nike sb[/url]XswDmxOheGnd [url=http://nikeair350.blog.fc2.com/]ナイキシューズ[/url]HuwCtbLleUvg [url=http://nikeshose.blog.fc2.com/]スニーカーナイキ[/urlTvrHtoMynChl [url=http://nikeonlie11.blog.fc2blog.net/]ナイキ[/url]LezPqjHcnDnc [url=http://ナイキシューズ.seesaa.net/]ナイキ フリー[/url]NhyIltHwnXtp [url=http://シューズナイキ.seesaa.net/]free nike[/url]BtzTqhOkkIps [url=http://nikeair11.seesaa.net/]ナイキ[/url]GnfCuyAeqGbq [url=http://niker.seesaa.net/]nike スニーカー[/url] UlwYwwKvnPzg [url=http://nikeshose11.blog.fc2.com/]nike free[/url]UqfZsvBdmLhr

 
Longchamp nmyfrvva Longchamp Pas Cher qixrsthc Sac Longchamp rdczvyei Longchamp Soldes ruwtvnor Longchamps ulvowlkp
 
B) So, What will function Net affiliate Red Bottom Shoes marketing and advertising is a comparatively recent concept, but internet affiliate advertising has frequently labored out quite well for numerous various company Red Bottom Shoes entrepreneurs who have offered affiliate advertising and marketing a try. Internet affiliate marketing usually provides to thoughts tips of affiliate advertising and marketing banners posted on one's site, and even though you can find other ways of using affiliate advertising, this really is almost certainly the most typical. [url=http://www.cheapchristianlouboutinshoessaleus.com/christian-louboutin-2013-mens-studded-sneakers-white-cheap-668.html] Christian Louboutin 2013 Men's Studded Sneakers White,christian louboutin shoes With Free Shipping On All orders[/url]

his or her
Christian Louboutins most amazing feature is the lathy heelcherry and lacquer sole, it is the designers mark. The designers ethos is to make heels that are like jewels and each unique model demonstrates unparalleled quality and an innate sultriness. From vertigo-inducing sale to the seasonal must-have shoes and a covetable range of totes and clutches, Christian louboutin is the accessories trademark for each super-chic fashionista. All females are crazy to have louboutin boots for one pair cherry sole high heel sale. Christian louboutin shoes are famous of 20 years standing because of mans line of sight, womans require. Christian Louboutin shoes are cherished by so many Hollywoods Star, and they are the free prolocutor to the super star. Only see the red sole, dont find the label, citizens will know Christian Louboutin .

Please Click the link:http://www.cheapchristianlouboutinshoessaleus.com/christian-louboutin-louis-pik-lame-flat-womens-high-top-leather-sneakers-gold-cheap-850.html

 
Me and ozzy fucked more difficult, trying to show to our god!
FUCK YES!' ahead of cumming inside my warm pussy. were still fucking

Also visit my homepage ... hcg injections
 
That is why it is extremely important to understand
what cholesterol is and how it affects your health.
Think about the groomsman and analyze whether he is a foodie,
sports minded, hobbyist, techno savvy or fashionable.
There is a slight natural effervescent zest or tang to keffir as one drinks it.


Here is my web-site: thuc pham chuc nang
 
For areas International of the United States, you Online below pressure to your decisions too promptly? [url=http://www.tasty-onlinecasino.co.uk/]http://www.onlinecasinotaste.co.uk/[/url] online casino The correct script chromatography column will be the Caesars speculation was take down than what it would Receive been for a U. S. venture. http://www.tasty-onlinecasino.co.uk/
 
интернет казино первая сумма при регистрации ооо что делать [url=http://campmillterprosaftid.narod.ru/hot506.html]казино вулкан на приморской[/url] казино вулкан фантики что такое , [url=http://campmillterprosaftid.narod.ru/hot440.html]интернет казино у анны франк[/url] казино империал м , [url=http://campmillterprosaftid.narod.ru/hot814.html]онлайн казино goldfishka com[/url] онлайн сайты казино , [url=http://campmillterprosaftid.narod.ru/hot0.html]онлайн казино играть на деньги онлайн[/url] казино онлайн без регистрации бесплатно , [url=http://campmillterprosaftid.narod.ru/hot308.html]интернет казино игровые автоматы без регистрации 777[/url]
 
Wonderful work! That is the type of info that should be shared across the internet.
Shame on Google for now not positioning this publish higher!
Come on over and discuss with my website . Thanks =)

My webpage :: cause hair
 
Excellent blog here! Also your web site loads up fast! What
web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host?
I wish my site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

My web blog pregnant women
 
My name's Ewan from Detmold Hakedahl, Germany and I have to say your article is quite informative. The clearness of your post is rather good and I can assume you are an pro on this subject. With your authorization, would you let me to grab your RSS feed to keep updated with future posts? Thanks a ton and please continue the good work.

Look into my page ... acier
 
I just wanted to notify you that I found your page on and even though I
enjoyed looking through your post, it seems your blog acts up in a couple web browsers.
If I look at your blog in Safari, it looks fine however,
when opening in IE, it has a bunch of overlapping problems.
Just so you know.

Visit my webpage: formidable
 
There are many specialized pay day loans organizations in the market providing almost difference as these specials schedule lower interest on your mortgage loan [url=http://www.dyjku.co.uk/]short term car insurance[/url] temporary car insurance Or it could be there is a trustworthy pawn shop in your neighborhood, which is also a good option to get fast money http://www.dyjku.co.uk/
 
I work with stuff like this out here in Bad Langensalza, Germany.
Genuinely doing what you desire and writing about it in such a smart way is a great gift.
Your informative post contains the ideal mix of enthusiasm and well-written, interesting material that
I’ve grown to love and respect.

My website :: rehabilitación
 
Howdy! I could have sworn I've been to this site before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it's new to me.
Anyhow, I'm definitely happy I found it and I'll be book-marking and checking back frequently!


Feel free to visit my web site ... Suggested Site
 
Greetings! Very useful advice within this post!

It's the little changes which will make the most significant changes. Thanks a lot for sharing!

Feel free to visit my weblog - Newport Beach catering
 
Hello, thіѕ weеkend is pleasant in favor of mе,
beсаusе this moment i аm rеading thіs fantastіс informative piеce οf writing herе
at mу house.

Have а look at my ωeblog; average weight loss on hcg
 
flirt dating ich online http://loveepicentre.com dating new girl gives anxiety
dating match sites [url=http://loveepicentre.com/map/]gay boys dating daddies[/url] dating without drama phone calls
book dating relationship [url=http://loveepicentre.com/success_stories/]free dating site in quebec[/url] one tree hill 2008 stars dating [url=http://loveepicentre.com/user/jecintababy/]jecintababy[/url] rich men dating sites
 
single parent dating site http://loveepicentre.com/advice/ pet people free dating
dating sites rich men [url=http://loveepicentre.com/success_stories/]ethical married dating[/url] free dating ads
nashville dating sites [url=http://loveepicentre.com/articles/]carbon14 dating[/url] sask dating [url=http://loveepicentre.com/user/yosu2010/]yosu2010[/url] mature men dating site
 
Post a Comment

Subscribe to Post Comments [Atom]



Links to this post:

Create a Link



<< Home

This page is powered by Blogger. Isn't yours?

Subscribe to Posts [Atom]